Apología de las palabras y otras variaciones (Spanish Edition)

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Que venga ya el General a meter su nariz y poner orden. Scutenaire restaura el lenguaje en su oralidad popular, del mismo modo en que Magritte devuelve la pintura al gesto irrisorio. El primero le devuelve su corporalidad a golpes de "nalgas", del mismo modo en que el segundo lo hace a golpes de pincel. The acceptance of the value of stakeholder engagement is now firmly established, even if the understanding of how to effectively arrange for it is less widespread. This section sets out some of the more common approaches to stakeholder engagement in the context of biodiversity identification, assessment and management.

The timing of stakeholder engagement is also important. In the early stages of exploration, when large areas of land are being traversed and the likelihood of identifying proven or probable reserves is low, stakeholder engagement is less important.

Hispania. Volume 76, Number 4, December 1993

As the focus of exploration becomes narrower, initial stakeholder engagement can help to establish the biodiversity context and determine the requirements for additional fieldwork in support of the environmental and social assessment. Thereafter, stakeholder engagement is a critical component of the ESIA, the identification of mitigation options, development of opportunities for conservation enhancement and related partnerships, and closure planning. Stakeholders include any organization, community or individual with an interest in the use or management of biodiversity or that affect or are affected by conservation initiatives.

This would include local users of biodiversity resources for subsistence, recreational value, small- or large-scale commercial exploitation and so on , government agencies with responsibility for land management or conservation, and NGOs. Identifying stakeholders involves determining who makes use of or affects the management or well-being of biodiversity.

Different stakeholders will have varying interest in the biodiversity of a given area and in its conservation or continued usage. The strength and legitimacy of the claim and degree of interest of stakeholders will depend on factors such as their proximity to biodiversity resources, dependence on such resources, historical association, formal and informal rights, economic interests, and institutional mandate in the case of governmental, intergovernmental or nongovernmental organizations.

The groups or individuals with the strongest and most legitimate claim may be referred to as key stakeholders. Identifying stakeholders is often fairly straightforward. A good starting point is with government agencies, known conservation organizations or community leaders. This often leads to the identification of other relevant stakeholders. In some countries, there are a number of legally prescribed statutory consultees on conservation issues who must be included on new projects requiring an ESIA.

Communities may also offer invaluable insights on biodiversity, particularly in developing countries where information may be limited, and most notably where they may have an intimate dependence on biodiversity resources. In practice, it is better to be more inclusive in the early stages than to run the risk of omitting important stakeholders.

Less relevant or engaged stakeholders are more likely to opt out of consultative processes and other forms of engagement — the converse is also true, whereby the more important stakeholders are likely to remain engaged. Once stakeholders have been identified, stakeholder analysis can help to establish their interests in biodiversity, the extent to which these interests are compatible or in conflict such as exploitation versus conservation and the extent to which they might like to be involved in biodiversity protection or enhancement.

Stakeholder analysis can be initiated during pre-feasibility and continued throughout the lifetime of a project. It can also be applied more discretely to the development of biodiversity conservation projects or to the closure planning process. A simple matrix can be used to help with the stakeholder analysis. An example of a stakeholder analysis matrix for biodiversity conservation initiatives is given in Table 6.

This involves considering the questions in the left-hand column for each stakeholder group and assigning them to one of the three categories of interest or impact. The result will be three lists of stakeholders, according to the assessed importance of the project to them and their likely level of interest.

Engagement encompasses a range of activities, including providing information, consultation, participatory planning or decision-making and partnership. The identified level of interest of each stakeholder helps the company decide how much time to devote to engaging with each stakeholder or group. The engagement levels revealed through this analysis may extend beyond consultation and include participatory planning or partnerships. The more mining operations understand their stakeholders and vice versa, the more successful their relationships are likely to be.


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Table 6. Who will benefit from such initiatives or projects? Who will be responsible for implementing measures to mitigate any negative impacts? Whose cooperation, expertise or influence would be helpful to the success of the project? Who are the most vulnerable, least visible and most voiceless, for whom special consultation efforts may have to be made such as critical dependence on ongoing access to biodiversity resources? Who supports or opposes the changes that the initiatives or projects will bring? Who might have resources to contribute?

Who are the key decision-makers? Community Development Toolkit 6. It can also assist in ensuring the ESIA is focused on matters of concern to stakeholders, which will add value to the decision-making process. It is recognized that, at this early stage, for commercial reasons companies may be unwilling to flag what commodities or specific areas they are targeting.

However, it is equally important that this stage be used to build trust and credibility. As exploration advances and where biodiversity is identified as of potentially high value, it is important to ensure that reputable agencies or individuals conduct biodiversity assessments and produce reports that are peer-reviewed to the extent practicable. Consulting early on biodiversity is a valuable means of exchanging information, of indicating intent with respect to biodiversity, and of eliciting valuable information to help define understanding of the biodiversity context of operations.

It can also help identify biodiversity threats and opportunities. It can help develop a more thorough understanding of the intersections between your operations and biodiversity, and it may reveal potential or actual impacts that had previously not been considered.

It can also highlight areas of importance for biodiversity where collaborative effort could help ensure the success of conservation efforts, or it can identify Box 6.

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Some key issues to consider for effective stakeholder engagement Because stakeholder engagement in the minerals sector has been undertaken for many years, engagement has occurred in a variety of ways and lessons have been learned over time. Environmental legislation often contains requirements to have stakeholder consultation. While this requirement must be met, it is important that mining companies use this opportunity to build relationships with stakeholders rather than undertake the activity purely for the sake of compliance.

Relationships with stakeholders should be considered as long-term investments and therefore it is important to allow the time for such relationships to develop. Cross-cultural training is important to build levels of respect. This can help to overcome actual or perceived asymmetries in terms of power, resources, and so on and can be instrumental in supporting the development of trust. Effective engagement occurs with trust, but trust is often absent or limited at the outset of stakeholder engagement.

The previous and following two bullet points are potentially important factors in helping to develop trust. Ensure community relations staff are given adequate status and support. Source: Business Partners for Development Good Practice Guidance for Mining and Biodiversity 84 complimentary interests of a range of stakeholders that could improve the prospects for biodiversity conservation or enhancement. However, experience in many locations strongly indicates that this knowledge should be fully incorporated into the evaluation of biodiversity and other assessment and management plans.

This highlights the importance of ensuring traditional rights and uses of biodiversity are recognized in impact assessment and the benefits from commercial uses of biodiversity are shared in a fair way. Additional guidance on incorporating traditional knowledge is provided in the Akwe: Kon voluntary guidelines see Section D. The effectiveness of stakeholder engagement is an important consideration. Some of the basic principles for effective stakeholder engagement are included in Box 6.

Once preliminary information has been gathered, it is important to consult with stakeholders to refine understanding of the site, its biodiversity and the values that stakeholders place on the biodiversity. Therefore, stakeholder engagement on biodiversity issues is central to the integration of biodiversity into the ESIA process and ought to continue throughout the process and into closure planning. Translation - French 6.

A la Table 6. Une formation transculturelle est importante pour cimenter les niveaux de respect. I am a translator with a broad cultural background: I have translated professionally for more than 45 years, and I have interpreted for more than 15 years; during that time I have been exposed to all the possible environments and knowledge fields.

I am also a writer, something which enhances my stylistic skills, and I have a long experience in literary translation for major editorial houses in Mexico and abroad. My cultural background is also quite diverse: my origins and traditional culture are Mediterranean; French, Spanish and a little bit Italian, and I was brought up in these three environements.

Mais sa plus grande erreur fut de ne pas reconnaitre le principe que les mots primitifs ou mots racines devaient etre en usage dans les autres langues. Prenez, par exemple, le mot fil. Voici done un mot ayant le meme son dans quatre langues, et un autre mot tout-a-fait different, mais ayant un son semblable dans quatre autres langues.


Cependant le Prof. Schleyer, ignorant ces huit langues et ces huit dififerents peuples, prit la racine de ce mot d'une seule langue: de I'allemand faden il prit fad, comme racine pour fil. De ce mot comme racine nous avons deja plusieurs derives anglais, comme: filament, filaceous, filar, file, fili- form, filiferous, fillet, etc. L,es trois langues afiiliees a I'anglais sur le mot thread, ont aussi plusieurs de ces derivatifs, de sorte que le mot fil serait plus ou moins familier aces quatre peuples; tandis qu'il serait tout- a-fait familier aux quatre autres. Une langue universelle n'a pas besoin d'attendre pour une commun- aute universelle.

P RO I,0 GO La cuestion de una lengua comun es de la mayor importancia d la raza humana, y al presente mas que nunca llama la atencion del mundo culto. En cualquier designio que se haga para solver este gran problema, lo primero que debe hacerse es conservar y usar lo que ya tenemos en comun. Las palabras 6 los modos de expresion que son los mismoso casi los mismos en varios idiomas debieran hacerse la base sobre la cual tene- mos que construir. Si ha de formarse una nueva lengua, debe construirse de estos mate- riales.

El motivode este Vocabularioes mostrar la gran cantidad de palabras comunes a casi todas las lenguas Indo-Germanicas, No es necesario de- cir que muchas de estas palabras tienen significaciones algo diferentes en las diferentes lenguas. Aun si la significacion fuera la misma al prin- cipio, luego se cambiaria 6 se modificaria conforme a los metodos 3' las costumbres y los modos de pensar del pueblo que emplee las palabras.

Sin embargo, aunque haya variedades y diferencias, existe no obstante una similaridad bastante material en el sonido asi como en el significado. Estas son las palabras de las cuales debieran sacarse las palabras radicales para una lengua que sea comun a todos los pueblos Indo-Ger- mdnicos. De que modo se debiera construir la lengua misma, lodeterm- inarian ilustres filologos y linguistas elegidos y escogidos para este pro- posito.

En el articulo que va acontinuacion el autor ha explicado completa- mente sus opiniones acerca delas medidas iniciativas que han de toniarse al principiar tal reforma. Se ha hecho una traduccion abreviada de este articulo en los otros nueve idiomas. Si el autor ha logrado suministrar sugestiones que resulten dignas de atencion en cuanto al metodo de principiar una empresa en cuya im- portancia conviene todo el mundo, se sentira bien recompensado por el tiempo y trabajo que ha gastado en esta obra.

Chicago, Si se juntaran en congreso los representantes de las lenguas mas importantes de esa familia, y si conviniesen en una lengua comun, despues pudieran hacer lo mismo las otras familias, de lo cual pudiera resultar liltimamente una lengua universal. Supongamos que se juntaran en congreso los filosofos y linguistas mas ilustres, representantes de las diez lenguas siguientes : ingles, frances, espanol, portugues, italiano, aleman, holandes, danes-noruego sueco, y ruso. Esta junta que representaria todas las mas importantes lenguas Indo-Germanicas, bien pudiera tomar a su cargo la representa- cion de la familia entera para construir una lengua comun.

Ya habiendose convocado el congreso, el primer paso en formar una nueva lengua seria establecer palabras primitivas 6 radicales, de las cuales pudieran formarse los derivativos. Es claro que debemos buscarlas entre las lenguas que ya estan empleando los diez pueblos representantes en el congreso. En simple justicia a sus electores el congreso debiera tener cuidado de que no se construyese una lengua sin pedirles consejo a ellos, sino que hiciesen caso de sus propias palabras que 3'a se usen comunmente.

En primer lugar hay un volumen inmenso de palabras que tienen todas no solo el significado semejante, sino casi el mismo sonido en cada una de las diez lenguas; y es claro que de estas debemos sacar las pala- bras radicales. Hay mas de palabras de estaclase en uso comun, siendo homo- fonas en las diez lenguas cada una. Cuando ya se habian sacado todas estas palabras, la proxima canti- dad consistiria en las palabras que de semejante modose sacariandenue- ve entre las diez lenguas; entonces las que pudieran sacarse de ocho; des- pues de siete; y asi de las deraas hasta el fin.

Siguiendo este curso, mucho antes de llegar al limite de una sola lengua, el conjunto de pa- labras radicales seria virtualmente inagotable, puesto que cada cantidad de palabras obtenidas de este modo seria mas grande que la anterior. El numero de tales palabras que se encontrarian en la mayoria de estas lenguas ascenderia a decenas de millares. Aunque su sistema gozo de breve popularidad — sintien- dose la necesidad de algiin metodo — no obstante a la vuelta de pocos aiios salio completamente mal. En primer lugar el Profesor Schleyer cometio el error de tratar de formar una nueva lengua.

De esta tarea no es capaz ningun hombre solo. Pero su error mas grave consistio en que no reconocio el principio de que sus palabras radicales debian set comunes a otras lenguas. T6- mese por ejemplo la palabra thread. Se expresa asi : en ingles, thread ; en danes-noruego, traad ; en sueco, trad ; en holandes, draad ; en fran- ces, fil ; en italiano, filo ; en espanol, hilo ; en portugues, fio; en ale- man, faden ; en ruso, nitka. Pues bien, tenemos aqui una palabra que tiene el sonido semejante en cuatro lenguas, y otra palabra absolutamente diferente, la cual tiene sin embargo el sonido semejante en otras cuatro lenguas.

No obstante el Profesor Schleyer, desatendiendo estas ocho lenguas yestos ocho pueblos, saco la palabra radical de una sola lengua; quiere decir que de la palabra alemana faden saco fad como la raiz por thread. Para obtener una palabra que sea cuanto mas breve y la cual tenga el sonido parecido en tantas lenguas como sea posible, fil debia haber sido la palabra primitiva 6 radical sacada de la palabra francesa fil, y derivada de la latina filum. De esta raiz ya tenemos muchos derivativosen ingles, a saber: Filament, filaceous, filar, file, filiform, filiferous, fillet, ets.

Eas tres lenguas que tienen relacion con el ingles en la palabra thread tambien tienen varios de estos derivativos, de modo que la palabra fil se- rfa mas 6 menos facil a cuatro pueblos, y seria comun a los otros cuatro. Aunque pudiera reconocer un aleman la palabra fad en el sentido de thread, la desconoceria un ingles 6 un americano, un frances, portu- gues, italiano, holandes, danes, noruego, sueco, 6 ruso. Una lengua universal no tiene que esperar hasta que venga una comunidad universal. Ya se ha hecho mucho para unir la raza humana, y podemos fiarnos en que, antes que hayan pasado muchas decadas, habra resultado una lengua universal — no un suefio utopico 6 imaginario, sino mas bien una gloriosa realizacion.

Em qualquer intento que se facpa para resolver este grande problema, a primeira cousa que ha de procurarse e conservar e usar o que ja temos em commum. As palavras e as maneiras de dizer que sao as mesmas ou quasi as mesmas em varios idiomas haveriam de fazer-se a base sobre a qual havemos de construir. Se ha de formar-se uma lingua nova deve construir-se com estes ma- teriaes. Nao e necessario dizer que muitas d'estas palavras tem significagoes um pouco differentes nas linguas dififerentes.

Ainda quando a significagao fosse a mesma no principio dove-se haver modificado ou cambiado segundo OS costumes e modos de pensar da gente que usasse as palavras. Com tudo, bem que haja variedadesedifferengas, existe uma semelhanga assaz material no sonido assim como na significafao. Estas sao as palavras das quaes hao de sacar-se as palavras radicaes para uma lingua que seja commum a todas as ragas Indo-Germanicas. O modo de construir a lingua mesma seria determiuado por philologos e linguistas illustres eleitos e escolhidos para este proposito.

No artigo seguinte o autor tem explicado completamente as suas opinioes em quanto a as medidas que hao de tomar-se para principiar tal reform a. Se tem feitouma tradugao abreviada desto artigo nas outros nove idiomas. Se o autor tem logrado dar suggestoes dignas de attengao em quanto ao methodo de principiar uma empresa que todo o mundo julga impor- tante, se sentira brm recompensado do tempo e trabalho que tem gastado nesta obra. W, Chicago, Se os representantes das linguas mais importantes d'essa familia se ajuntassem num congresso para concertar uma lingua commum, as outras familias poderiam fazer depois a mesma cousa, e finalmente poderia resultar uma lingua universal.

Supponhamos que sejuntassem em congresso os philosophos e lin- guistas mais illustres para representar as dez linguas seguintes : inglez, francez, hespanhol, portuguez, italiano, allemao, hollandez, danez-norue- go, sueco, e russo. Esta junta, que representaria todas as linguas Indo- Germanicas mais importantes, poderia tamben encarregar-se de repre- sentar a familia inteira para construir uma lengua commum. Uma vez chamado o congresso, o passo primeiro para formar uma lingua nova, seria estabelecer palavras primitivas ou radicaes, das quaes poderiam-se formar OS derivativos.

Claramento devemos buscar-las entre as linguas que ja estam usando os dez povos representados no congresso. Para fazer justiga a sens elec- tores, o congresso deveria ter cuidado de que nao se formar-se uma lingua para essos povos senao empregando as palavras que ja se usen commum- mente. Primeiramente ha um numero grande de palavras que nao somente tem a mesma significagao, mas quasi o mesmo sonido em cada uma das dez linguas, e e claro que d'estas devemos sacar as palavras radicaes.

Ha mais de palavras d'esta classe em use commum, sendo ho- mophonas, em cada uma das dez linguas. Guando todas estas palavras se tenham sacado, a proxima quanti- dade consisteria das palavras que d'um modo semelhante se sacariam de nove das dez linguas ; entao das que poderiam sacar-se d'oito, depois de sete, e assim ate o fim.

Seguindo este methodo, muito antes de chegar ao limite de uma lingua soa, o conjuncto das palavras radicaes seria vir- tualmente inesgotavel, postoque cada quantidade de palavras conseguidas d'este modo seria mais grande que a anterior. O numero de taes palavras encontradas na maioria d'estas linguas chegaria a dezenas de milhares. O Professor Schleyer emprehendeu com " Volapiik" construir uma nova lingua.

Aiuda quando o seu systema gozou de breve popularidade porque se sentia a necessidade d'algun metbodo, depois de poucos annos sabiu completamente mal, Em primeiro Ingar o Professor Schleyer commetteu o erro de querer formar uma lingua nova. Um so homem nao e capaz d'esta tareia. Porem o seu erro mais grande foi nao reconhecer o principio de que a suas palav- ras radicaes deviao ser commums a outras linguas. Tome-se por exem- plo a palavra thread. Em ingles se diz thread; em danez-noruego, traad; em sueco, trad ; em hollandez, draad ; em francez, fil ; em italiano, filo; em bespanhol, hilo; em portugeuz, fio, em alleman, faden ; em russo, nitka.

Pois bem, temos aqui uma palavra que tem o sonido semelhante em quatro linguas, e outra palavra absolutamente differente, a qual tem, nao obstante, o sonido semelhante em outras quatro linguas; a pezar d'esto, o Professor Schleyer, fazendo a um lado estas oito linguas e estes oito po- vos, sacou a palavra radical d'uma soa lingua, porque da palabra allema faden sacou fad como a radical de thread. Para obter uma palavra que seja muito mais breve e que tenha o so- nido semelhante em tantas linguas quantas seja possivel, fil devou ter sido a palavra primitiva ou a radical sacada da palavra franceza fil, de- rivada da palabra latina filum.

D'esta raiz ja temos muitos derivativos em ingles, a saber: Filament, filaceous, filar, file, filiform, filiferous, fil- let, etc. As tres linguas que tem relagao com o inglez na palavra thread, tambem tem varios derivativos, de modo que a palavra fil seria pouco mais o menos facil para quatro povos, e seria commum aos outros quatro. Se bem um allemao poderia reconhecer a palavra fad no sentido de thread, um inglez e um americano, um francez, um portuguez, um itali- ano, um hollandez, um hespanhol, um danez ou noruego, um sueco, ou um russo, nao poderiam reconhece-la.

Uma lingua universal nao tem que esperar ate que venha uma com- mumidade universal. Muito se tem jd feito para unir a raga humana, e podemos ter confiauQa de que antes de que tenham pasado muitos decen- nios, jd havemos de haver uma lingua universal. Nao como um sonho utopico e imaginario, mas como uma realizagao gloriosa. Con ogni tentativo che si puossa fare por solvere questo grande pro- blema, la prima cosa da considerarsi e di mantenere ed impiegare cio che gia abbiamo comunemente in uso.

Le parole omodi per esprimersi, sono gli stessi o quasi i medesimi in varie lingue, e questi dovrebbero esser la base sulla quale fondarsi. Se una nova lingua dev' esser fondata, bisogna che sia formata con tali materiali. Lo scopo di questo vocabolario e per dimostrare qual immenso capi- tale di parole e usato in comune fra quasi tutte le lingue Indo-Germani- che.

Sia pure che il loro significato fosse dapprincipio lo stesso, si sarebbe tosto cambiato o modificato in rapporto ai modi, costumiepensieri dei popoli fra cui le parole sono in uso. Pure, cionondimeno tutte le diversita e varianti, esiste sempre una similitu- dine sostanzievole, sia nel suono che nel significato. Oueste sono le parole dalle quali si deve attingere alia radice, per for- mare una lingua da usarsi in comune fra i popoli Indo-Germanici. In qual modo la lingua in se medesima, dovrebbe esser formata, e da determi- narsi da eminenti filologhi e poliglotti, scelti per questo scopo.

Neir articolo che segue questo catalogo I'autore ha pienamente spie- gato le sue viste riguardanti i passi preliminarii da prendersi per inaugu- rare questa riforma. Un' aggiunta a questo articolo e stata tradotta nelle altre nove lingue. Se I'autore ha riuscito nell' intent 3 di far germogliare un suggeri- mento che serva di qualche utilita come iniziativa per principiare un lavoro, la di cui importanza e riconosciuta da tutti, egli si sentira ampia- mente compensato per la sua perdita di tempo e le sue fatiche.

W Chicago, Se i rappresentanti delle piii importanti lingue di quella famiglia potessero unirsi in un congresso e trovarsi d'accordo a pro- posito di una lingua in comune, dopo le altre famiglie potrebbero fare lo stesso, ed eventualmente una lingua universale potrebbe risultare. Supponendo che un congresso si riunisca composto di eminenti filo- loghi e poliglotti, che rappresentassero le seguenti dieci lingue: Inglese, Francese, Spagnuolo, Portoghese, Italiano, Tedesco, Olandese, Danese Norvega, Svedese, e Russo.

Quest' assemblea cosi convenuta, rappre- senterebbe in tal modo tutte le piu importanti lingue Indo-Germaniche e potrebbero bene assumere I'incarico di agire per tutta I'intera famiglia nella formazione di una lingua da usarsi in comune. Una volta riuuito il congresso, il primo passo da prendersi nella formazione di una nuova lingua, sarebbe di stabilire parole primitive o radicali, sulle quali si potrebbero formare derivativi. Dove dobbiamo noi andare a cercare queste parole? Dove, se non fra le lingue gia in comune uso fra i dieci popoli, rappresentati nel congresso?

Comepura giustizia ai loro constituenti, sarebbe necessario che il congresso osser- vasse che una lingua non e formata sopra la testa della gente a disprezzo delle loro parole, gia comunemente in uso. In primo luogo, vi e un gran numero di parole, ognuna delle quali non solamente possiede un medesimo significato, ma quasi un simile su- ono, in cada una delle dieci lingue; e questo e manifestamente il primo luogo per cercare la radice delle parole.

Vi sono piu di parole di questo carattere in uso comune, ognuna di queste omofonica in tutte le dieci lingue. Quaudo queste parole saranno esaurite, la prossima sorgente di ricer- che sarebbe fra quelle parole che si assomiglierebbero fra nove delle dieci lingue, poi fra otto, poi fra sette, e cosi di seguito. Applicando iin principio piu limitato di associazione conteso, si puo fare usando frasi omofoniche e come e stato fatto nel nostro fascicolo " Conversazioni Omofonetiche, " redatto in quattro lingue.

II Prof. Schleyer, nel "Volapiik", intraprese la formazione di una nuova lingua. Quantunque questo suo sistema avesse un assai breve popolarita, il mondo sentendo ilbisogno di qualche cosa di nuovo, pure in pochi anni provo di essere un fiasco completo. Schleyer com- mise un errore, in prime luogo, cercando di formare una nuova lingua. Nessun uomo e capace di tanto. Eppoi il suo piu grande eirore fu nel non voler riconoscere il prin- cipio che le sue parole, diro radicali, dovessero esser comuni alle altre lingue.

Prendete per esempio la parola thread. Ecco qui una parola con un suono eguale in quattro lingue, e un' altra parola, del tutto difierente, ma con un simile suono in quattro altre lingue. Pure il Prof. Schleyer, ignorando queste otto lingue e quest i ot- to popoli, prese la parola radicale da una sola lingua. Dal Tedesco faden egli prese fad come la parola radicale filo. Per ottenere una parola tanto corta che possibile ed una che risounasse similmente in tante lingue che fosse possibile, la voce primi- tiva o radicale dovrebbe essere fil, dal Francese fil, Latino filum.

Da cio comeradice, noi abbiamo gia molti derivativiin Inglese, come: Filament, filaceous, filar, file, filiform, filiferous, fillet, eccetera. L,e tre lingue le quali si aflSgliano coll' Inglese nella parola thread, posseggono anche pa- recchi di quest! Mentre che fad, significando thread, potrebbe esser riconosciuto da uu Tedesco, sarebbe una strana parola per un Inglese, per un Amer- icano, per uno Spagnuolo, per un Portoghese, per un Italiano, per un Olandese, per un Danese, per un Norvega, per uno Svedese, e per un Russo.

Una lingua universale non ha bisogno di aspettareper un'universale comunita. Molto e gia stato fatto collo scopo di unire la razza, e non 6 da pretendere molto, che prima di non poche diecine d'anni siano pas- sate, una lingua universale, iuvece di essere un soguo utopico o mille- nario, diventi una gloriosa realta.

Die Worter oder Redeweise welche in verschiedenen Sprachen gleich sind, sollte man als Grundlage ge- brauchen, worauf zu bauen ware, Wenn eine neue Sprache gebildet werden soil, muss sie aus diesen Materialien zusammengesetzt werden. Der Zweck dieses Worterverzeichnis ist zu zeigen welch grosse An- zahl Worter sich gleich sind in beinahe alien Indo-Germanischen Sprachen.

Es ist kaum nothig zu bemerken dass viele dieser Worter eine etwas verschiedene Bedeutung haben in den verschiedenen Sprachen. Wenn aber auch die Bedeutung anfanglich dieselbe ware, wiirde diese sich bald verandern oder modificiren in Uebereinstimmung mit den Ma- nieren und Gewohnheiten und Denkweise der Volker von denen die Worter gebraucht werden, Indessen, ungeachtet all dieser TJngleich- heiten, und Verschiedenheiten besteht eine wesentliche Gleichartigkeit in Klang und Bedeutung.

Diese nun sind die Worter von welchen die Wurzelworter fiir eine all- gemeine Sprache fiir die Indo-Germanischen Volker zu entnehmen sind, Auf welche Weise die Sprache selber zusammenzusetzen ware, miisste von hervorragenden Philologen und Sprachgelehrten, welche zu diesem Zwecke zu wahlen sind, entschieden werden.

In dem Aufsatze welches auf dieses Verzeichnis folgt, hat der Ver- fasser seine Ansichten auseinandergesetzt, welche einleitende Schritte zu nehmen waren um ein solcher Reform zu Stande zu bringen. Ein Aus- zug dieses Aufsatzes ist in den andern neun Sprachen iibersetzt worden. Der Verfasser fiihlt sich hinreichend fiir seine Miihe entschadigt, wenn cs ihm gelungen ist, einige Andeutungen niederzulegeu, welche bei er Ausfiihrung eines solchen Unternehmens Verwendung finden konnien. Chicago, H Wenn Vertreter der wichtigsten Sprachen dieser Volker zu einer Versammlung znsammen komnien und sich iiber eine allgemeine Sprache einigen konnten, die andern Volker konnten spater dasselbe thun, und nacb und nach eine universale Sprache wiirde entstehen.

Gesetzt eine Versammlung findet statt, zusammengestellt von her- vorragenden Philologen und Sprachgelehrten, welche die nachstehenden zehn Sprachen representiren: Englisch, Franzosisch, Spanisch, Portugie- sisch, Italienisch, Deutsch, Hollandisch, Danisch-Norwegisch, Schwed- isch, und Russisch. Diese Versammlung, vertretend die wichtigsten In- do-Germanischen Sprachen, konnte wohl im Stande sein eine allgemeine Sprache zusammenzustellen.

Das Erste was diese Versammlung nun zu thun hatte, um eine neue Sprache zu bilden, ware das Feststellen von urspriinglichen oder Wurzel- worter, von welchen Ableitungen gemacht werden konnten. Wo werden wir diesen Worter suchen miissen? Wo sonst als in den Sprachen welche schon im allgemeinen Gebrauch sind von den zehn Volkern welche in der Versammlung vertretensind? Es ist nur zu erwarten, dass die Versamm- lung darauf sehen sollte, dass eine Sprache nicht formirt wird ohne Bezug zu nehmen auf ihren eigenen Worter welche schon im allgemeinen Ge- brauch sind.

Erstens, gibt es ein grosser Anzahl Worter von welchen ein jedes nicht alleineine gleiche Bedeutung hat, sondern audi beinahe denselben Laut besitzt, in jeder der zehn Sprachen; und es liegt auf der Hand dass man da die Wurzelworter finden wiirde. He has more than one million followers on Twitter , and , subscribers to his channel. This places him among the top five most followed bloggers on Telegram, an essential platform for politically active Russians.

His acerbic, profanity-laden critiques of Russia's political system and latest news generate thousands of likes and retweets. Can you imagine Harvard closing down for a visit of a plump dictator? Because somewhere the people are citizens and in other places they are nothing but cattle. But in July , RBC, a business news outlet known for its investigative exposes of the infamous St.

Some wondered if there was a real person behind the account. Others suggested it was run by a group of individuals. Gorbunov is wheelchair-bound and suffering from a chronic, rapidly progressing condition known as Werdnig-Hoffman disease, the most severe type of spinal muscular atrophy. For someone whose pithy tweets frequently contain expletives and slang, Gorbunov in real life comes across as articulate, educated and thoughtful. He arrives at the BBC office smartly dressed in a black polo-neck and tweed jacket. He speaks softly and with the quiet confidence of someone who is used to being listened to.

In the interview, Gorbunov spoke of the difficulties of growing up as a disabled person in one of the least wheelchair-friendly places in Russia. He expressed his desire to provide the best care for himself and his forays in online business, from selling dietary supplements to dreams of setting up his own investment fund. One might wonder why he chose this particular name.

His intention, he explained, was to troll Stalin fans who would flock to a familiar name and the avatar of Joseph Stalin smoking a pipe, expecting to read praises of the dictator but seeing instead something radically different. Stalingulag is a great guy after all. And this dude is doing something, carrying on. So it happens, yes. The case also prompted fierce debates in the Russian media community about the justification for such unmasking anonymous bloggers in an atmosphere where any government critic could be targeted for persecution or harassment.

What is the societal value of publishing these incomplete biographical details? Even if we naively assume that our society is capable of acting on the information instead of just passively consuming it and forgetting about it the next day. Valery Igumenov, who was editor at RBC when the original investigation of StalinGulag came out in , responded to Volobuyev with a comment that left many scratching their heads:.

We were interested in who was writing this and why. The most popular Telegram channel, thousand views per post, and no one knows who it is. This is a question people have been asking each other all the time. Why tell about it? Meanwhile, the man himself is still somehow finding the will to live, to make money, to have other interests outside this neverending torrent of doom and gloom, but still is dumping on others nothing but despair and bile, without hope, without options, without an exit in sight.

Valery Igumenov argued that there was public interest in knowing the person behind an immensely popular political blog, even though it did not in the end, contrary to the original assumption of the investigative reporter, turn out to be the work of a shadowy team of professionals waging an information war.

Since RBC is a business publication, those who agreed with Igumenov said, there was still merit in exploring the one-man media empire which brought its owner considerable profit in advertisement. StalinGulag also offered sponsored posts for upwards from thousand rubles, or approximately 2, US dollars. Liusia Shteyn, an opposition politician and a local council member in Moscow, wrote :. You are free to share, republish, translate or remix our stories so long as you attribute and link to Global Voices and the author clearly as the original source.

Detail of illustration by Venezuelan artist Eduardo Sanabria. Taken from his pubilc Facebook profile and used with permission. As confrontations between Venezuelan state forces and opposition leaders escalated to new heights this week, Twitter suspended multiple accounts belonging to Venezuelan state ministries and foreign consulates on May 1 and 2. Twitter accounts for the ministries of education, oil and women's affairs were all suspended on May Unconventional coup: Venezuelan institutional accounts are being suspended arbitrarily.

At the time of publication, these accounts remained suspended.


Some consular accounts, including that of the consulate in Vancouver, Canada, had been restored. This is not the first time state or local officials in the country have had their accounts suspended, but the political stakes in this case are uniquely high. Uncertainty about who is in power in Venezuela arguably has never been greater. Protests are ongoing in many cities in the country, and authorities have resorted to violence in efforts to disperse demonstrators.

In recent years, it has become common for public officials, their associates and supporters to post messages on social media that might violate Twitter's rules against hate speech and violent threats. These types of behavior warrant account suspension, and may have caused Twitter to shut down these accounts we asked the company for comment, and were awaiting their reply upon publication. But the move could carry other consequences, both for the public and for the company. Alongside the significant questions this raises about Twitter's role intentional or not as a political actor in this scenario, the suspensions could offer authorities increased justification for blocking Twitter altogether.

The unique public value of accounts like these — even if they are spewing hateful or partisan vitriol — is also worth considering. With the accounts now suspended, their past tweets have been removed from public view. Unless a third party has collected the information elsewhere, there is no public record of what the account posted in the past.

Whether or not these accounts were sharing important public information, any message coming from a public official — even if that official's status is contested — has some value to constituents. Twitter offers a unique window into people's minds and emotions, something that can be especially valuable in moments of political crisis. People want to know what their leaders are thinking.

The removals also contribute to the increasingly scarce landscape of public information available to Venezuelans, as electricity and internet connections flicker off and on, and major social media and news networks like BBC and CNN get kicked off the air. The coastal town of Cedros is the closest legal point of entry for Venezuelans coming to Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad lies just north of Venezuela — at the closest point the distance between the two land masses is only 14km 8.

Some arrive covertly, others come through official ports of entry. Estimates suggest that the country has already taken in as many as 60, migrants, and the figure is climbing. A week later, on April 11, there was another fatal shooting of a Venezuelan national, this time near a busy shopping plaza during the afternoon rush hour. An incident in late April highlighted the range of local attitudes toward Venezuelan migrants.

On April 25, , more than 30 Venezuelan migrants were feared drowned after their boat capsized in rough seas approximately three miles off the Venezuelan coast. David Abdulah, leader of the political party Movement for Social Justice, stopped just short of suggesting that the amnesty arrangement had contributed to the tragedy. In a post that was liked and shared hundreds of times, Facebook user Tillah Willah couldn't help but point out the irony of the citizens of a country built on slavery and indentureship deriding such a disaster:.